Microcontrollers – Part 2: Uncovering

  Let’s continue with the microcontrollers – these smart “centipedes” all around us.  In Every Smart TV, in every modern kitchen device, even in every car there are more than one. 

  In Part 1 we described in few words, what of a kind can be configured the I/O ports.

cpu-1-hardware-pro

  We continue our “trip” inside the Black-Box named Microcontroller.

  Let’s imagine we can see inside the microcontroller package. There is the Silicone crystal – contenting thousands to millions microscopic transistors ordered in countless ways to ensure the uninterruptable and fully functional work of the device.

cpu-monkey-1-hardware-pro

 PIC. 1   Smart Little Monkey – CPU Monkey

  The main ingredients of the microcontroller are CPU Core { if you allow, we associate with this post little monkey } – It doings arithmetic and logical operations. and it’s necessary surroundings.

  Around the CPU is all necessary hardware surroundings.  In that number: Clock engine and “watchdog” Circuitry  Operation – It can be imaged as the adjustable metronome, which settings is defining the tempo of monkey’s work. The watchdog circuitry you can imagine as a dog, who control the monkey, not to fall asleep. If the monkey falls asleep, the  dog’s barking (Watchdog Reset) take monkey again in an awake state.

Memory:

The Operational Memory – RAM: (Random-Access Memory)

  This is the place where the CPU monkey “takes his notices”.  On that place, the tireless monkey collecting the results and variable parameters of his work. The data can be structured.

  The CPU Monkey is orderly and tidy – It read books and has a library with many of them. They based on the knowledge of programmers and your knowledge also.     

  This RAM Memory is power dependent – if  by any reason the microcontroller doesn’t have a power supply, whole the information are “gone”. This Power-Off state can be associated with erasing the content of every letter of monkey’s notepad.

The Program Memory – ROM: (Read-Only Memory)

  The ROM Memory in the past was Ultra Violet Light Erasable Read-Only Memory.

  After that, there was invented the Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.  

  Nowadays Microcontrollers are using Flash-based Program Memory. 

  The Program Memory, as functionality, can be associated with a list filled with instructions : Operator&Operands  as a kind of machine’s language. 

 

cpu-monkey-language-3-hardware-pro

PIC. 2  What you see ? 

The Schiffer used by Leonardo Da Vinci?  

The CPU Monkey Language ?  

 

  Yes, We are talking the Monkey’s language… Of course, we aren’t – its a joke!  

  The CPU monkey language is simply … Assembler – The only understandable from CPU Low-level Language.   

The EEPROM or E2PROM Memory: (Electrically Erasable Read-Only Memory) 

  This memory is energy independent when we talk about the memory data retention. For Writes or reads the data written, is necessary the system be powered  

  For Writes or reads the data written, the system needs to be powered. 

  These data array can be used to store energy independently any Valuable and Configuration User Data. 

 

Don’t Stop to Reinvent Yourself, Dear Explorers!

To Be Continued! 

Leave a Reply